Law is the set of rules that a society or government creates in order to deal with things such as crime, business agreements and social relationships. A person who is breaking a law can be put in jail, fined or even forced to pay a large sum of money.
The concept of law has been a source of much debate, with various definitions of the word appearing in different literature and culture. It is often described as the science of justice, or the art of doing right by those who are being governed.
It serves many purposes in a country, as it can keep the peace and maintain the status quo; preserve individual rights; protect minorities against majorities; promote social justice; and provide for orderly social change. Some legal systems are more effective at these functions than others.
In this article we will examine a variety of legal theories. We will also explore the role that a legal system plays in society and how it shapes people’s lives.
Firstly, it is important to distinguish between the concepts of legal rights and legal norms (see below). Legislative and executive powers are vested in public or private entities; each of these groups has the power to enact laws that bind their subjects. These laws are enforced by courts, either through the enactment of statutes, or by judicial precedent, in common law jurisdictions.
There are four Hohfeldian positions exhibiting the term “right” in legal theory: claim-rights, rights as obligations, rights as redress, and rights as outcomes (Kamm 2002: 476). We will consider these in turn and discuss their implications for how one defines what is a right in law.
Claim-rights are the most popular type of right exhibited in legal theory, with these norms being referred to as “right-claims”. A claim-right is a type of entitlement, or a legally recognized ability to alter an aspect of another’s normal legal position.
The legal status of a right varies widely; in some cases, it is a basic human right or civil rights protected by the law. In other cases, it is a matter of political economy or institutional considerations.
In most countries, law is made by a government; this can be done through a group of legislators who write statutes or through an executive branch that imposes regulations and decrees on the public. This is known as “state-enforced law”.
Other kinds of law include administrative and judicial. These are made by people, such as judges or barristers, and they usually have to do with resolving disputes.
These types of law are very detailed and can be difficult to understand if you don’t know what they are about. For example, the criminal laws of a country can be very confusing and can vary from state to state.
A statutory law is an enactment of a particular rule that must be followed by all citizens, such as a rule about the use of weapons or drinking alcohol. This type of law can be very strict and is usually enforced by a police force or army.